Northern territories are the own land of Japan.
Two South Kuril and two islands off Hokkaido are the own land of Japan.
Map source: University of Texas Library
The islands lie off Japan's northern-most island of Hokkaido.
Photo source: AP and NHK broadcast, Feberuary 13, 2011.
Kunashiri Island, one of four islands of Northern Territories in the Southern Kuril Islands
Source: Reuters (2007)/Kyodo and NHK broadcast Feberuary 13, 2011.
The dispute over the islands has been going on since the end of World War II. President Medvedev has paid
the first visit by a Russian president to the disputed Kuril Islands, sparking a diplomatic row with Japan.
Mr. Medvedev met local residents in Kunashir, the second-largest of the four islands, and pledged more
investment $B!!(Bfor the region. Japanese Prime Minister N. Kan expressed his deep regret over the President
Medvedev's visit to the island, and Russia's envoy was summoned. Russia called Japan's reaction
to the visit unacceptable. Russia took control of the islands at the end of World War II. The islands lie
to the north of Japan's Hokkaido island and to the south of Russia's Kamchatka peninsula.
They are known in Russia as the Southern Kuril islands, while Japan calls them Northern Territories.
Before Russia took control of them, some 17,000 Japanese residents lived in Kuril islands.
They are known in Russia as the Southern Kuril islands, while Japan calls them Northern Territories.
Mr. Medvedev is the first Russian leader to set foot on the islands. In Kunashir, known in Japan as Kunashiri,
he visited a kindergarten, a power station and a fishery, and promised greater investment in the region.
"We have an interest in people remaining here. It is important that there be development. We will
invest money in Kunashiri without fail." Interfax news agency quoted him as saying. Prime Minister Kan
reiterated, "Those four northern islands are part of our country's territory, so the president's visit is
very regrettable," he said. Separately, Japanese Foreign Minister Seiji Maehara warned that
the visit would "hurt the feelings of Japanese people." The dispute has strained relations between Tokyo
and Moscow ever since World War II, preventing the signing of a formal peace treaty. The islands have
rich fishing grounds, mineral deposits and possibly oil and gas reserves. Mr. Medvedev's visit comes
shortly before his planned trip to Japan for an Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (Apec) meeting in
mid-November. It also comes with Japan, locked in a separate territorial dispute with another of its
Ties between China and Japan have been strained by a row over islands in the East China Sea, which
is known as Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu in China, that both claim.
Four islands of the Northern Territories were invaded by Soviet Armed Forces.
President Medvedev visited Kunashiri Island in Novermber, 2010, one of the four Russian-held islands east of
Hokkaido claimed by Japan. He became the first leader from Russia or the former Soviet Union to set
a foot on what Japan calls the Northern Territories.
In response to the action by the Russian President, the US State Department officials supported the outstanding
claim by Japanese government and people, which the Northern Territories in South Kunashiri Island is the own
land of Japan.
The United Stated clearly admitted the disputed four islands are Japan's inherent territory.
Source: Washington, Kyodo November 2, 2010
In Japan, August 14 is considered to be the day that the Pacific War ended, and Imperial Japan actually surrendered on August 15.
This day became known in the English-speaking countries as" Victory over Japan Day."
However, Russian Military force landed on the Etorofu Island, a part of Hokkaido on August 28, despite the war had been ended,
and quickly occupied our Northern Islands of Japan for only nine days.
Japan claims that the islands are occupied illegally as the Soviet Union during the period of August 28
and September 5, after Japan's surrender on August 15, 1945.
(L) Photo was taken the Soviet landing craft on August 28, 1945, and soldiers occupied the Northern Islands.
(R) A Soviet flag over the Northern Territories
Source: NHK broadcast January 8, and February 13, 2011
In the Northern islands, 17,000 residents lived there before 1945. They were compulsory deported by Soviet troops.
Photo: NHK broadcast, Feberuary 13, 2011.
Because of the dispute, Russia and Japan have not yet signed a peace treaty to end World War II. Many
Japanese people migrated north to the islands in the 18th and 19th century, including members of Hokkaido's minority,
Ainu community. In 1855, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda, which gave Japan's ownership of the four
southern islands and Russia ownership of everything to the north. At the time World War II began, there were
17,000 Japanese residents. Russia took control of the islands at the end of the war, and by 1949 it had deported
all residents to Japan.
San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951 was signed between the Allies and Japan. Japan renounced all right, title
and claim to the Kuril Islands, as well as over other possessions. However, this treaty resolved nothing. Russia did not
sign the treaty, and the Japanese government has never recognized the four islands as part of the Kuril chain.
In 1956, the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration restored diplomatic ties between the two nations, but a formal peace
deal remained out of reach because of the territorial dispute. At the time, Russia proposed returning the two islands
closest to Japan, a deal Japan rejected, in part because the two islands represent only 7% of the land in question.
Since then, the dispute has remained unresolved.
Wikipedia ( Kuril Island dispute )
Is there any way to resolve the territorial issue of the Four Islands?
NHK broadcast, Feberuary 13, 2011
In 1998, Japanese government proposed to Russia that Russia acknowledges that Japan over the four islands;
on the other hand, Japan admits the Russia's administration right over the Northern territories.
(L) Mikhail Gorbachev, the President of the Soviet Union made a pinky swear with Japanese Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu
for the solution of the territorial issue.
(R) Russia President, Boris Yeltsin ( 1991-1996 ) and Ryutaro Hashimoto, Prime Minister of Japan ( 1996-1998)
shake hands with a firm grip, saying to solve the Northern territories at a meeting held in Tokyo in 1992.
In 1992, the former Secretary of State of Russia, G.E.Burbulis talked at a lecture held at
a hotel in Tokyo that the military occupation occurred in 1945 is caused by the invasive
action of Stalin's regime, and he convinced that the four northern islands off Hokkaido will,
sooner or later, return to Japan.
In 1992, the former Secretary of State of Russia, G.E.Burbulis talked at a lecture held at a hotel in Tokyo that
the military occupation occurred in 1945 is caused by the invasive action of Stalin's regime, and he convinced that
the four northern islands off Hokkaido will, sooner or later, return to Japan. He stressed that Russia President, Boris Yeltsin
himself will never abandon the resolution of the territorial issue by law and justice. He denied the previous talks of
V.S. Chernomydin, in which he rejected a negotiation regarding the territory handover views.It is very pity that there was no voyage to solve the territorial issue of the 'northern four islands' in the long period
of time to progress.
(L) Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan, Minoru Tanba
(M) Polish-born Yastrzhemsky bitterly opposed to returning the Northern lands to Japan.
Had he no mind to show anger against German troops invaded Poland in 1939?
(R) All Japanese newspapers showed a rejection against the first-step return of the two islands.
(L) In 2001, Russian president, Vladimir Putin said the Soviet Parliament had ratified the agreement between Japan and USSR
that the two islands of Shikotan and Habomai should be returned, and it is our duty to do so.
(M) A member of Jaoanese Parliament, Muneo Suzuki, it is difficult to request Russia to return the four islands together,
and it is rather wise to ask the two islands of Shikotan and Habomai at first. He is known to conduct an economic
aid to the four islanders from Japan, when a financial crisis occurred and one-third of people evacuated to the main land
of Russia during the period after 1991.
(R) Director General, Europa-Asia Affairs Bureau, Kazuhiko Togo said that politics do not always reflect a legal basis
of the problems.
Minoru Tanba, Dupty Minister for Foreign Affairs says with bitter grief in his heart, the Northern island has
never been governed by any other country, and it is truly our own native lands. The territories' issue is the root
of the nation, and no country in the world would be respected, when easy changed its attitude toward the country
under negotiation. Mikhail Gorbachev, who served from 1988 until its collapse in 1991 as the last head of the USSR,
promised to Japanese Minister to solve the territorial problems before the peach treaty between Japan and USSR.
This political view was taking over to the New Russian leader, Boris Yeltsin. However, it was very sad to say
that the friendly partnership was destroyed by the negative advise given by Sergey Yastrzhemsky, a staff
of Russia's presidential Excutive Office, born into a polish family, a recruiting ground for the KBG, that if Russia
transfers the possession of Northern lands to Japan, it might cause of a confusion in Russia.
Prime Minister Putin Putin stressed on the importance of Northern island in the point of stratagem,
and he put 17.9 billion Rouble for the public facilities and economic assistance of the four islands.
Photo source: NHK broadcast, Feberuary 13, 2011.
In 2006, Prime Minister Putin recognized and stressed the Northern island, South Kuril islands and the two islands
of Shikotan and Habomai, is very important in the point of stratagem, and he proposed to put 17.9 billion Rouble
for infrastructure of the island and assistance of the islanders.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on Kunashiri Island
In November 2010, President Medvedev visited and made an inspection about the infrastructures,
port, school and fisheries' factory of Kunashiri Island, that Japan insists that is the inherent own land.
Many Russian youngsters are enjoying their lives at the Kunashiri Island.
Young Russian enjoying a summer sunlight, saying the land belongs to Russia, and we do not return it to Japan.
Do they know that Japanese owned islands were illegally occupied by Soviet troops on August 28, 1945, after
the date of the world war has already ended thirteen days before the military invasion?
President Medvedev visited Kunashiri Island on Novermber 1, 2010, one of the four Russian-held islands
east of Hokkaido claimed by Japan. He became the first leader from Russia or the former Soviet Union
to set a foot on what Japan calls the Northern Territories.
It is highly regrettable that he visited a place over which the question of territorial jurisdiction has not
yet been solved between Japan and Russia. His visit runs counter to the Tokyo. Declaration of 1993 was signed
by Prime Minister M Hosokawa and Russian President B Yeltsin. It declared that the two countries would sign
a peace treaty by solving the territorial issue based on the related bilateral documents and law and justice.
In February 2009, Mr. Medvedev proposed taking an "ingenuous approach" to solve the territorial issue.
This has not yet taken place. Is he trying to project an image of a strong leader with the Russian presidential
election in 2012 in mind?
The government must pay attention to the possibility that China and Russia are synchronizing their pressure
against Japan; that is, China over the arrest of a Chinesefishing boat captain near the Senkaku Island of
Okinawa and Russia over the Northern Territories. During Mr. Medvedev's visit to Beijing on Sept. 26-28,
he and Chinese President Hu Jintao condemned "attempts" to change the history of World War II.
In July, Russia held a large-scale military drill on Etorofu Island, one of the four islands. Mr. Medvedev
signed into law a bill designating September 2, which is the date in 1945 that Japan submitted instruments
of surrender to the Allied Powers, as a memorial day for the end of World War II.
To help solve the territorial issue, the government must analyze whether Japan has made errors in dealing
with Russia. For example, since the change of government in September in 2009, no Japanese leader has
visited Russia. Japan should find out what really lies behind Mr. Medvedev's act and builds a coolheaded
strategy that develops trustful bilateral ties as well as solidifies Japan's principle against expansionism.
Source: Japan Times Editorial, November 3, 2010
A new generation born in Kunashiri Island is increasing and more native islanders are now living there, after 61 years of illegal occupation.
Russian working at a grocery store said the number of goods are now 30, 40, 50 times more than before.
In the past, the goods were placed at the small corner space of the store.
Russian who has a villa at islands of Shikotan said you can see so beautiful nature. We really enjoy our full and fruitful life here.
This man wants to say to thank the former Prime Minister Putin, because he rescued and supported our life
when a very sad economic difficulty. The woman said she is proud of to be Russian.
Is that mean we, Russian, expelled native Japanese people from their islands?
Picture source: NHK broadcast, February 13, 2011
Former Hokkaido Government Office Building in Sapporo: Red-Brick Northern Territories Museum
East Ezo areas of Northern Territories, Etorofu, Kunashiri, Habomai and Shikotan Islands were ruled by the Sendai clan,
Map display at Hakodate Magistrate's Office
NHK News November 2, 2010
The United States showed its support for Tokyo's stance on disputed islands off Hokkaido held
by Russia but claimed by Japan. We are quite aware of the dispute. We do back Japan regarding
the Northern Territories," State Department spokesman Philip Crowley told a news briefing.
His remarks came after Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on November 1, 2010, visited
Kunashiri Island, one of the four islands, which are known as the Southern Kurils. It is the first time
a senior official of the U.S. administration of President Barack Obama, which has emphasized
improving ties with Moscow, has explicitly expressed Washington's support for Japan's position
on the issue.
The assistant secretary of state for public affairs, also urged the two countries to continue
efforts toward concluding a peace treaty, saying, The United States for a number of years has
encouraged Japan and Russia to negotiate an actual peace treaty, regarding these and other issues.
Some analysts have said Japanese diplomacy lacks strong leadership at a time when neighboring
countries have begun taking aggressive stances. It asked whether Medvedev's visit to Kunashiri
Island was motivated by perceptions of Japanese weakness, a senior U.S. official said," I don't know.
The official added, "I'll leave it to President Medvedev to explain why now"he decided to visit
the island. The islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri and Shikotan as well as the Habomai islet group
was seized by Soviet Union around the end of World War II. The territorial row has prevented
Japan and Russia from concluding a peace treaty, as Japan has called for their return.
Source: The Mainichi Daily News, November 2, 2010
Following the United States, the UK is concerned about the effectiveness of Yalta's confession.
In the UK secret documents showed a doubt about Yalta's confession, that the Yalta Clash is merely
a military agreement, and does not have the ground as an international law. It also violates
international law that the relocation of territories should not be involved by the parties is ineffective.
United States has supported the position of Japan after the War, and shown a stance of not accepting
the legal basis of the Soviet Union. In 1952, when ratifying and approving the Peace Treaty, the US
Senate decided not to include items of Yalta's secret treaty, which would be beneficial to the Soviet.
In 1956, Eisenhower also announced, "Yalta Talks are invalid." In 2005, President Bush criticized Riga,
the capital of Latvia, as "the Yalta Conference is one of the greatest mistakes in history."
(L) In 1990s, Russia had been suffering a severe economic crisis. This woman worker said Russia would not need the small island of Shikotan.
(M) In 2009, the native Japanese people visited the cemetery of the islands.
The Islands before the Soviet Unioin arrived there, Japan discovered and surveyed. 'The visit to Northern Islands framework
without using a visa' has been agreed between Japan and Russia, until the territorial issue is resolved.
(R) This beach is the profoundly memorable for the island for the native residents.
Photo source: NHK broadcast January 8, 2011.
Former island residents protested over Medvedev's visit to Northern Territories.
(L) Former island residents raise their voices in protest against Russian President, D Medvedev's visit to Kunashiri Island
at a gathering in Nemuro, Hokkaido, in November 2010.
(M) Foreign Minister Seiji Maehara said we have to overcome this very difficult problem between Japan and Russia,
by showing our wisdom each other.
Photo source: Nemuro Municipal Government and NHK broadcast, Feberuary 13, 2011.
(R) A display to think about our own land, Northern four islands:
This was photographed at the Japanese Cabinet Office in April 2013.
Former residents of the Northern Territories were gathered in Hokkaido on November 1 2010, to protest
against Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to visit to Kunashiri Island, one of the disputed islands.
This rain today is the bitter tears, the angry tears of our ancestors during these 65 years. We will not
yield to Russia's heavy-handed actions.
We are prepared to carry on forward toward a resolution of the territorial issue," yelled Nemuro Mayor Hasegawa
amidst the strong, rain-tinged winds. At the Cape of Nosappu in Nemuro, from which Northern Territories
can be seen, around 250 former islanders and others gathered, were wearing headbands and sashes, reading
the aim of "Return our land," shouting slogans in a chorus.
"Our anger has swelled up. The four islands in South Kuril is Japanese territory, and our movement will not
waver in the least," said an angry H Kawata, 76, head of the Nemuro branch of an organization of former island
residents. Meanwhile, Hokkaido Gov. H Takahashi held an emergency press conference in which she called on
Prime Minister N Kan to visit the Northern Territories. "It is deplorable. We want to see an end soon to
Russia's illegal occupation of the Northern Territories, and we strongly request the government to work
toward an end to this problem," said Takahashi.
However, some in the prefecture worry about worsening Japan-Russia relations. "Problems involving
national boundaries are delicate, so I hope that both sides will react in a reasonable fashion," said Federation
of Hokkaido Chambers of Commerce and Industry Chairman, I Takamuki.
Source: The Mainichi Daily News, November 2, 2010
Prime Minister Naoto Kan delivers a speech at an annual rally in Tokyo
in February 2011 held to demand the return of four Russian-held islands
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev's November visit to Kunashiri Island was an "unforgivable outrage,"
Prime Minister Naoto Kan said at the annual government-sponsored rally in Tokyo to demand the return of
territory seized by the Soviets at the end of World War II. Medvedev's trip was the first made by a leader
from Moscow to one of the four Russian-held islands, the return of which Kan called"an extremely important
matter for Japan's diplomacy." Like his predecessors, Kan meanwhile vowed to continue negotiating with
Moscow to get the islands back. The Kan administration has been criticized from the opposition camp and
the public about its handling of sensitive diplomatic problems. Medvedev's trip last year kicked off a string
of additional visits to the disputed islands by Russian ministers. Foreign Minister Seiji Maehara is set to visit
Moscow later this week to meet with his counterpart, Sergei Lavrov, and discuss the deadlocked territorial dispute.
For 65 years, the islands are an integral part of our nation, have not been returned," Maehara said at the
meeting. I would risk my political career to see the islands returned as soon as possible.;The annual rally,
held in Tokyo to commemorate "Northern Territories was attended by activists, former residents of the isles
and lawmakers from both the ruling and opposition parties. In the 1855 Treaty of Commerce, Navigation
and Delimitation, concluded that Japan and Russia confirmed the four islands are Japanese territory.
At the end of World War II, Soviet forces seized the islands of Shikotan and Kunashiri, and also the islets of
Etorofu and Habomai and later evicted Japanese inhabitants. The dispute has kept Moscow and Tokyo from
signing a World War II peace treaty.
Source: Masami Ito, Staff writer, Japan Times, February 8, 2010
"Foreign investment in the four northern islands to continue to expand"
China and South Korea are now several companies are planning for aquaculture in the four northern islands,
as well as business machines for fish processing factories, and some companies will have to build ships repair
facility. However, if the Chinese enterprises to invest these four islands, to a certain extent, recognized the
sovereignty of Russia on the four dispute islands, north to Hokkaido. Japan will therefore, suspect that behind
the "politically motivated." Japan so worried about the expanded foreign investment in the four northern islands,
since the investment is the recognition of the jurisdiction of the four islands in Russia, so the Japanese
government strongly opposed.
Previously, the Russian government is always thinking and practice in Japan with the joint development
of the four islands, but now, doing with the powerful Russian national and domestic political struggle.
The government of Russia has determined to countries such as China and South Korea alone, or the development
of these islands took, and no longer talk about Japan and the Northern Territories issue.
(L) NHK reported the movements investing in the four Northern Islands are continued to expand.
(M) The district chief of the South Kuril ( Northern Territories ) said we try to provide a comfortable
facility to all island residents and visitors by a business investment from foreign countries.
(R) Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia said he cannot understand why Japan advises other countries not
to work together with Russia.
(L) Many cabinet members visited the Northern Island. (M) For a joint venture agreement at the Islands
(R) A land owner is promoting employment of Chinese to work at a farm of the Northern Territories.
Chinese's travel agency is planning to the 10-day nature tour at the Northern Territories.
A president of Chinese's travel agency said he knows the islands are in dispute between Japan and Russia.
However, it would provide an interest to many tourists and make it special.
Russian travel agency recognizes that Chinese is the important target for tours in the islands.
Picture source: NHK broadcast, April 19, 2011
Russian TV report about Etorofu Island$B!!(Band geothermal power plant in the island
Picture source: NHK broadcast, April 26, 2012
Russia pushes the development of Kuril Islands claimed by Japan as their own land. In April 2012, the television
network in Russia reported that the Russian doctors' group visited Etorofu Island to advise the developers to
build a hotspring resort to promote the health of people of Russia. The island has many active volcanoes and
hot springs. There are geothermal power plants in the island, and it can generate electricity, enough to cover
the demand for the people lives in Etorufu. About 8300 Japanese people lived on Kunashiri island and 6000
on Etorofu island, and most of them were engaged in coastal and high sea fishing, before the illegal occupation
by Soviet Union.
Mr. Putin talked about the Northern Territories issue negotiations, and said in Japanese; the issue might be
ended in a draw, "Hikiwake," in front of a foreign reporter, on March 1, 2011. He emphasized we should find
the compromise point acceptable to each other.
Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, second from right, meets with foreign journalists at the Novo-Ogaryovo residence outside Moscow. CBC News'photo
Source:Russia RTR and NHK BS1 World Wave, broadcast March 3, 2012.
Source:Russia RTR and NHK BS1 World Wave, broadcast March 5, 2012.
Mr. Putin declared his victory in the presidential election in Russia in 2012, and after, moved his to tears of emotion.
However, I sincerely hope that he can understand the bitter tears of Japanese people following the illegal occupation
of our northern island by Russia after the world War $B-6(B.
Russia begins military drills in Far East.
Russia's Eastern Military District, which is based in the city of Khabarovsk, says its troops are conducting military exercises
on the Etorofu and Kunashiri islands. The island is claimed by Japan and called as the Northern Territories in Japan.
It said the drills will be the largest in several years, with more than 1,000 soldiers taking part. The exercises will also
involve five attack helicopters and 100 military vehicles.
Japan's foreign ministry says it notified Russia one week before that it would not accept any military drills on the four islands
which are the inherent part of Japan's territory, that were illegally occupied after World War $B-6(B.
Observers say that the exercises may further strain relations between Japan and Russia, which have shown signs of
cooling over the situation in Ukraine. It has been said that the four islands are 100 percent Japanese territory,
both historically and in terms of international law.
Source: NHK World
$B!!(B'Overview of the Issue of the Northern Territories' posted by Japanese Government
$B!!(BJapan's Northern Territories ( English )
$B!!(BJapan's Northern Territories ( Russian ) :
This page has been deleted from an unknown reason. Please refer the English site.
We protest strongly against the Rissia's Prdident Medvedev to set foot on our own land of Northern Territories
of Japan. Prime Minister Kan said that Medvedev's visit to the Japan's inherent islands was unforgivable outrage.
It is the true voice of all Japanese people.
The reaction of people in Russia after Russia annexed Crimea.
(L) Hurrah for Putin (M) An increased support rate of Putin to 90% after Russia annexed Crimea.
(R) President Putin can overcome any nation's difficulty. A college student said.
We feel that our lives are getting better.
If the northern territories of Japan returned to the home country, the support rate to the prime minister of Japan could increase.
Don't you think so? The name of Putin will be left in the Russia's history who took back the territory.
Picture sources: NHK, The Era of Disorder, broadcasted on January 10, 2016.
Poll results about returning the four Northern Islands by Russian in 2018
Opposition to give over the Northern Islands: 78%
Agree to give over the Northern Islands: 17%
Annotation: Soviet red army invaded the four Japanese island after violation of non-aggression treaty between Japan
and Soviet Union on 8 August 1945. They occupied the lands only in one-week time. United Stated returned Okinawa
and Ogasawara islands after 1968 and 1972, respectively. Most of Russian people are not told these facts at all.
(L) Territory return opposition rally at Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
(M) In the island of Shikotan, 3000 Russian people live there.
(R) Aquatic industrial complex was destroyed by the earthquake in 1994.
(L) Japan built a medical clinic and power plant in the island during the first half of 1990, as a humanitarian aid.
(M) Putin invested 50 million yen and promoted a development of islands.
(R) Russian government accelerate development by establishing fishery's special zone.
(L) The income of this man, an emergency life-saving person, has doubled.
(M) This woman said her life is much better than that before immigration.
(R) Our children are growing up on the island. We cannot give over this island.
(L) This emergency life-saving person says there is no other choice but this island remains in Russia.
(M) Territory return opposition rally at Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
(R) This man insisted against the return of the Territory.
Putin's support rate declined from 90% to the first half of 60%, because of dissatisfaction with pension policy.
Picture source: NHK broadcast 25 December 2018
Russia and Japan at odds over seven-decade-old Kuril Islands dispute
CNN January 22, 2019
Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
By the end of World War 2, there were from 560,000 to 760,000 Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union and Mongolia,
interned to work in labor camps. Of them, about 10%, 50,000-60,000 died, mostly during the winter of 1945-1946.
Northern territories are the own land of Japan.
The article was written in November 2010, and last retouched in January 2019,
by Junhaku Miyamoto,M.D.,PhD.
A photograph was added in April 2013 and January 2016.
$B!z(BThis Web site is link free.