The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known
as United Kingdom, the UK, or
the Britain, is a sovereign nation located off the northwestern coast of
continental Europe. Northern Ireland
shares a land border with the region of Republic of Ireland. Apart from
this land border, the UK is surrounded
by the sea of Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish
Sea. Great Britain is linked with
by the Channel Tunnel.
This map shows the territories that were at one time or another part of
the British Empire.
The British Overseas Territories are underlined in red.
( Source:Wikipedia )
Map Source: University of Texas Libraries $B!!!!(B
London is one of the world's three largest financial centers, alongside
New York and Tokyo.
( Source:Wikipedia )
(L) A farm land surrounded by the rich greenery in Scotland, photographed
in May 1989.
(R) A cool windy beach along the route 836, west of John o' Groats, Scotland's
(L) A view of Stonehenge, a world heritage site, 200km west of London,
photographed in May 2000.
(R) The Roman Baths, a world heritage site, southwest of England
(L) A thatched country pub, near Braunton, in the western England
(R) Ye Olde Fighting Cook, claimed to be the oldest in England
A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking-establishment
licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for
consumption on the premises in countries and regions of British influence.A
little definitive difference is in
existence between pubs, bars, inns, taverns and lounges where alcohol is
served commercially. A pub that offers
lodging may be called an inn or, sometimes, hotel in the UK.
The recent figures show that beer sales have slumped to their lowest levels
since the great depression of
the 1030's. The future of the pub does not look good. Despite high taxes
upon beer, there will always be pubs
that will survive, but equally there will be a vast number that will not.
The Ale-House Door, 1790, painting by Henry Singleton
The reduction of British cigarette smokers with years
Total population in UK is estimated about 61,000,000 in 2009. The number
of smokers is reported about 10,000,000
in 2007. In 1948, the first surveys were conducted, when the eight of 10
were smokers - the highest level ever
recorded. The proportion of smokers fell rapidly during the periods of
1970s and 1980s and continues to decline
steadily. About one in four British inhabitants over the age of 16 now
smokes, with the rate slightly higher among
men than women.
Source: BBC News June 29, 2007
Reducing exposure to secondhand smoke$B!!(B
Secondhand smoke is a mixture of side stream smoke from the burning tip
of a cigarette, and mainstream smoke
exhaled by a smoker. A scientific evidence shows that there is no safe
level of exposure. It is dangerous. It causes
a lung cancer and childhood respiratory disease. There is also evidence
that tobacco smoke is a cause of ischemic
heart disease and cot death, middle ear disease and asthmatic attacks in
Restrictions on smoking in public places and work places are necessary
to protect non smokers. Parents need to
be informed about the effects of secondhand smoke on their children.
Source: Department of Health,UK, July, 1 2007.$B!!(B
(L) A bar in the small hotel in town, southwest of London, photographed
in May 2000.
(R) A city pub of Camden Town, London
Smokers may face tougher bans.
The government launched plans to halve the number of smokers in Britain
by the end of the decade and said it
would consider removing branding from cigarette packets and banning cigarette
vending machines. At this point,
21 percent of the population smoke and ministers want to reduce that figure
to 10 percent by 2020, with
a particular focus on young people. One day, soon, we'll look back and
find it hard to remember why anyone
ever smoked in the first place." said Health Secretary Andy Burnham.
The number of people lighting up has fallen by a quarter in the past decade
pursuant to various policies,
including a ban on advertising, putting grisly pictures on packets and
raising the age of sale for tobacco to 18.
In 2007, the government introduced a ban on smoking in virtually all enclosed
public places and workplaces, and
last year 337,000 people quit cigarettes. However, despite falling smoking
rates, the number of deaths attributed
to smoking is 80,000 a year, costing the National Health Service some 2.7
billion pounds a year. The government
said seven out of 10 smokers want to give up and, as part of the new strategy,
smoking restrictions will be
reviewed to see if they should be extended to include entrances to buildings.
It also will look at protecting
children from second-hand smoke by promoting smoke-free homes and cars.
Ministers are also to consider the case for plain packaging, and banning
the sale of tobacco from vending
machines as part of the moves to deter young people. Now that we've banned
advertising and will soon see
an end to attractive displays in shops, the only remaining method of advertising
tobacco is the packaging,"
Burnham said. The Tobacco Manufacturers Association said it welcomed the
crackdown on an illicit trade
but criticized other proposals. The British Medical Association's head
of science and ethics, Vivienne
Nathanson praised the plans and said they would "save lives and protect
Measures like banning vending machines, improving NHS Stop Smoking Services,
smuggling and maintaining awareness campaigns to encourage smokers to quit
will pave the way for a smokefree
society," she said in a statement. Tobacco is one of the leading preventable
causes of death in the world and
kills more than 5 million people a year. Smoking rates in Britain and other
European countries have been coming
down in recent years, and that decrease is reflected in falling rates of
lung cancer, particularly among men.
Source: Reuters London, February 1, 2010
UK will ban the display of tobacco products in shops.
The U.K. government said in March 2011, it plans to ban the display of
tobacco products in shops
and may introduce plain packaging, as lawmakers seek to curb the take-up
of smoking and improve
public health.Under the Tobacco Control Plan, restrictions which ban the
advertising of tobacco
products, except under certain limited circumstances, will come into effect
in large shops in April 2012,
and in all shops from April 2015. The government said there is evidence
that the display of tobacco
products in shops can promote smoking by young people and undermine the
resolve of adult smokers
who are trying to quit. If the policies are implemented, the U.K. would
become the first European
Union country to introduce plain cigarette packs. Furthermore, a ban on
tobacco sales from vending
machines is due to come into effect in Octber 2011. In November 2010, the
health department issued a policy paper that claimed smoking causes 80,000
deaths each year
in the U.K. Source: BBC News Health, 9 March 2011
Air view of London from JAL aircraft, photographed in June 2013, by Dr.
UK is the first EU country to adopt plain packaging for cigarettes.
The law on plain-packaging on cigarette packets enters into force.
Britain will become the first Member State to introduce plain packaging
on cigarette packets after members
of the House of Lords rubber-stamped a new law on March 15. Peers agreed
to the change without a vote
after the member of parliament overwhelmingly approved the move, despite
fierce opposition from the
The law will come into effect in May 2016; four years after Australia made
the change. Smoking rates have
fallen in Australia since then, although tobacco companies have blamed
the decline on tax hikes.
Source:EurActiv.com March 17, 2015
Ban smoking in cars, says British Medical Association
All smoking in cars should be banned across the UK to protect people from
second-hand smoke, doctors say.
The British Medical Association called for the extension of the current
ban on smoking in public places after
reviewing the evidence of the dangers. It highlighted research showing
the levels of toxins in a car can be up
to 23 times higher than in a smoky bar. However, the All-Party Parliamentary
Group on Smoking and Health
even said calling for an immediate ban could be "counterproductive"
as a consensus needed to be built across
society before taking such as the step. The group said there should be
a consultation on tackling smoking in
cars, which could look at whether it would be better to have an outright
ban, or if more could be achieved by
raising awareness about the dangers through education campaigns. It pointed
out that policing a ban on smoking
in cars could be difficult.
No part of the UK has yet implemented a ban, although ministers in Northern
Ireland have said they will
launch a consultation on the issue. Meanwhile, in Wales, a public awareness
campaign has begun highlighting
the dangers of smoking in cars. Officials have said if that does not succeed
over the next three years,
a ban will be introduced. Neither England nor Scotland are currently considering
at the moment. However, the BMA believes tougher action is needed. The
doctors' union said an outright
ban- even if there were no passengers - would be the best way of protecting
children as well as non-smoking
adults. It said the young were particularly vulnerable to the second-hand
smoke as they absorbed more
pollutants, and their immune systems were less developed. Research has
shown that cigarette smoke can
increase the risk of a range of conditions, including sudden infant death
syndrome and asthma, as well as
impairing lung function. Dr Vivienne Nathanson, head of science at the
BMA, admitted introducing a ban
would be a "bold and courageous" move. She added: "The evidence
for extending smoke-free legislation
Source: BBC News, November 17, 2011
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in North Ireland.
$B!!(BHealth Warning in UK.
$B!!(BRemoval of smoking rooms from UK, Canada, USA and Scandinavian Hotels.$B!!(B
$B!!(BWHO advised the governments of each nation should introduce a law to enforce
a total smoking ban in a public indoor space.$B!!(B$B!!(B
The photographs were taken in May 1989, and in May 2000.
The article was written in April 2008, and revised in December 2011, Junhaku
A photograph was added in June 2013.
Smoking Ban in European Countries
$B!!(BItaly $B!!(BMalta$B!!(B $B!!(BIreland$B!!!!(B $B!!(BNorth Ireland$B!!(B $B!!(BUK$B!!(B $B!!(BGermany$B!!(B $B!!(BSwitzerland$B!!(B
$B!!(BFrance$B!!(B $B!!(BHolland$B!!(B $B!!(BPortugal$B!!(B $B!!(BSpain$B!!(B $B!!(BNorway $B!!(BSweden $B!!(BDenmark $B!!(B