(L) Rivers in the Netherlands (R) The areas of the Netherlands that are
above sea level
Hollands has borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the
to the east. The seat of Government is The Hague. The word, Dutch, is used
to refer to the
people, the language of the Netherlands. Netherlands is a geographically
with about 27% of its area and 60% of its population located below sea
(L) Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, Indonesia, a painting by
Andries Beeckman, in 1656.
(R) The Zuiderzee works were carried out from 1920 until 1975 and led to
the creation of an entire new province.
It was established in 1986 and was given the name of Flevoland, the name
of the province of Netherlands.
The Dutch grew to become one of the major seafaring and economic powers
of the 17th
century during the period of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
During the periods
of the 'Dutch Golden Age' their colonies and trading posts were established
all over the globe.
(L) Holstein cow, which seen in the intensive daily farming in the Netherlands
(R) The growth of the Dutch East Indies, 1800-1942
Smoking Ban in Netherlands
$B!!(BSource: University of Texas Libraries
The Government of the Netherlands introduced a nationwide
smoking ban in public places to protect workers.
The smoking ban had been applied since July 2008. This covers all restaurants,cafe
shops and bars.
Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said that the coffee shops should be
treated in the same manner
as other catering businesses. However, a proprietor is allowed to set up
a separate room in which people
can smoke, but customers will not be served there to protect staff members.
that 'Employees should not have to work in an environment, in which they
exposed to the harmful effects of smoking'.
Amsterdam's well known coffee shops, where marijuana can be smoked openly
in a relaxed atmosphere,
are one of the city's big draws for tourists. Patrons of cannabis cafes
will still be allowed to smoke marijuana
as long as it is not mixed with tobacco. Possession of cannabis is illegal
in Netherlands, but holders of
the amounts less than 5 grams is not prosecuted.
Source: Jun 8, 2007 Reuters & July1, 2008 BBC News
In February 2013, the Dutch parliament agreed on a total ban in the hospitality
sector with 77-73,
with no exception for smaller, owner-operated bars.
$B?75,@-K!$G$OBgKc(B( cannabis )$B$r5[$&$3$H$N=PMh$?(B"coffeshops"$B$G$N5J1l9T0Y$b6X;_$5$l!"BgKc$N5[0z$J$i$P(B
$B0zMQ(B $B!!(BRadio Netherlands, June7, 2007
$B0zMQ!!(B Dutch News. March 22, 2008
$B0zMQ!!(B Dutch News. March 26, 2008
New Dutch anti-smoking law 2008 Tobacco control in Holland Schiphol Airport and Railways
Amsterdam tram Amsterdam city 1 Amsterdam city 2
2008$BG/(B3$B7n<9I.!!(B2008$BG/(B11$B7n2CI.(B $B!!(B2009$BG/(B12$B7n1QJ82CI.(B $B!!(B2010$BG/(B5$B7n2CI.(B $B!!(B2013$BG/(B10$B7n2CI.(B
The article was written in March, 2008, and last revised in October 2013,
by Junhaku Miyamoto, M.D.,PhD.