Virginia



State of Virginia

The commonwealth of Virginia is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast. The estimated population is
about 7,000,000 in 2008. In northern Virginia, near the state border with Washington, D.C., there
are federal agencies of the Department of Defence and CIA. The growth of the media and technology
sectors have made computer chips the leading export of the state. There are the 21 TV stations in
the Virginia. The headquarter of the popular paper 'USA Today', which now is the second largest
after the Wall Street Journal, is located in McLean, Virginia.



(L) Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia
(R) This map shows the site of the Blue Ridge Mountains.


Many rivers in Virginia, including Potomac river, flow into the Chesapeake Bay. The Blue Ridge Mountains
are on the links of Appalachian Mountains, the highest point in the state, which is the Mount Rogers at
1,746 m.

Source: Wikipedia


Norfolk Botanical Garden (Azelea), in April 1961

Williamsburg Colonial Historic Sites, in April
1961
All four photographs were taken by Dr. Junhaku Miyamoto.

Source: University of Texas Libraries

Virginia is also well known for the production of tobacco. Tobacco, one of the most widely used addictive
substances in the world, is a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the half-dozens most
important crops grown by American farmers. From 1617 to 1793,tobacco was the very valuable staple
export from the English-American mainland colonies and the United States. Until the 1960s, the United
States not only grew but also manufactured and exported more tobacco than any other country.


Tobacco field in Virginia

Philip Morris USA, which is the world dominated tobacco company, moved its headquarters from New York City to Richmond, Virginia.
Philip Morris plans to move all domestic productions to Richmond, VA, by the year 2010.


Smoking Ban in a public place in Virginia

A broad ban on smoking in restaurants and bars passed both houses of the Virginia legislature, giving final
approval to an unprecedented restriction in a once a reliably pro-tobacco state. - The home state of Marlboro
cigarettes and the world's largest cigarette factory is banning most smoking in restaurants and bars.

Details of the smoking restriction: It allows smoking only in private clubs or in restaurant rooms that are
enclosed and separately ventilated. It prevents restaurant and bar employees from being required to work
in smoking areas. The ban allows lighting up only in closed off, separately ventilated areas or in private
clubs. However, establishments or patrons flouting the law would incur a fine of $25
.

Source: www. Washingtonexaminer.com. April 12, 2009

Smoking ban in Virginia to protect restaurants workers and patrons

New Virginia's legislation goes into effect December 2009, to protect restaurant workers and patrons from
the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. The Virginia Department of Health offers these frequently asked
questions and answers about the law and the role of Department of Health.

What Is the key provision of the law?
Smoking will be prohibited in restaurants that are open to the public, with a few exceptions.
What Kind of establishments are exempt from the law?
Any place or operation that prepares or stores food to distribute to people in the same business operation,
or of a related business operation for service to the public. Examples include operations that prepare food
for catering services, pushcart operations, hotdog stands or other mobile points of service. Any outdoor
area of a restaurant, with or without a roof covering, provided it is not enclosed by temporary enclosures.
Any restaurant located on the premises of any manufacturer of tobacco products. Any portion of a
restaurant constructed so that the area where smoking is
permitted is: Structurally separated from the areas, in which smoking is prohibited, of the restaurant, and
separately vented to prevent the recirculation of air from the smoking area to the non-smoking area. At
least one public entrance must be into an area where smoking is not permitted.

Does The smoking ban prohibit smoking in restaurants operated in private clubs?
No, a private club is exempted from the smoking restriction.
Smoking will be allowed in outdoor areas of restaurants?
Smoking will be permitted in open-air outdoor areas of a restaurant.
Does The anti-smoking law affect employees who work in areas where the law
permits smoking?
Yes, wait or bus staff may not be required by the proprietor to work in any area of the restaurant
where smoking may be permitted.
Post Sign boards, stating 'No-Smoking' or containing the international
'No Smoking' symbol no smoking clearly and conspicuously in every restaurant where smoking is prohibited; Remove
all ashtrays and other smoking paraphernalia from all areas of the restaurant, where smoking is prohibited.
Source: Virginia Department of Health.


Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Crystal City, Virginia, are situated 7kms south of Washington, DC.
Photographed in October 2010.


首都ワシントンの南に隣接するバージニア州、州都はリッチモンド市、最大の都市はバージニアビーチである。
ノフォ−クは港湾都市で世界最大と言われる海軍基地がある。かってはタバコの輸出港として繁栄した。州の
総人口は700万人くらいとされている。筆者は1960年代初期、ワシントン居住中に、ウイリアムブルグなど植民地
時代の歴史を伝える Historic Triangle を含め、何回となくバージニア州内をドライブしている。1973年には
総延長28キロの長い長いチェサピーク湾横断道路(橋とトンネル)を渡り、軍港、ノフォ−クなどに立ち寄って
いる。ワシントン居住中に週末に頻繁にドライブした Blue Ridge Mountainは日本の低い山々の風景を彷彿と
させる心の安らぐ空気の澄んだ山里である。

2009年3月にバージニア州議会でレストラン、バーでの喫煙を禁止する法案が成立した。2009年12月から
施行される。しかし、クラブは今回の規制から除外される。タバコ生産関連施設のレストランは適応外となった。
こうした除外規定はあるものの、全面禁煙を骨子とする規制であり、2006年に州の公共施設の全面禁煙規制
以来の快挙である。バージニア州では年間1,700人の人々が受動喫煙が原因で死亡している。完全に分離した
喫煙スペースの設置は認められたが、雇用主が従業員に喫煙空間での仕事を義務づけることは出来ないとの規定を
設けた。レストランは最低、1箇所のタバコの煙を浴びないで入室出来る出入口を設ける必要がある。

多くのレストラン、バー経営者は多額の費用がかかる喫煙室を設けることには否定的だ。バー室内を禁煙とすれば
大部分の顧客は寒い屋外や雨の中で喫煙せざるを得ない状況を忌み嫌い自宅で酒をたしなむようになると経営上
の危機感を抱いている。かってカナダ・オンタリオ州でも規制初期の段階で同様の喫煙室の設置を認めたが
普及せず、今では全面禁煙となっている。

バージニア州の主要農作物は今なおタバコである。州内にはタバコ製造産業関係者が多い。1670年代には
奴隷たちを使ってのタバコ生産が盛んに行われた。州都、リッチモンドには世界のタバコ産業を支える大会社、
フィリップモリス本社があり、議会でのロビー活動が活発である。こうした経済的、政治的背景のため、タバコ
生産関連施設内にあるレストラン等は今回の規制から除外された。



Total Smoking Ban in USA

smorking ban New Jersey  New Jersey
smorking ban Illinois USA Illinois
smorking ban California USA California
smorking ban Beverly Hills California Beverly Hills, California 
smorking ban condominium Condominium of California
smorking ban Washington state State of Washington
smorking ban Oregon USA Oregon  
smorking ban Montana USA Montana
smorking ban Colorado USA Colorado
smorking ban Arizona USA Arizona 
smorking ban Maine USA Maine
smorking ban Vermont USA Vermont 
smorking ban Massachusetts Massachusetts state.
smorking ban New York New York 
smorking ban Maryland USA Maryland 
smorking ban Washington DC Washington,D.C.
smorking ban Minnesota USA Minnesota 
smorking ban Delaware USA Delaware 
smorking ban Ohio USA Ohio 
smorking ban Iowa USA Iowa 
smorking ban Utah USA Utah 
smorking ban Rhode Island Rhode Island 
smorking ban Nevada USA Nevada 
smorking ban Virginia USA Virginia
smorking ban Michigan USA Michigan 
smorking ban Wisconsin USA Wisconsin


バージニア州喫煙規制
2009年4月執筆 2009年11月英文加筆
執筆 医学博士 宮本順伯
This Web site is link-free.
The article was written in April 2009, by Junhaku Miyamoto, M.D., PhD.



smorking ban Michigan USA 
Smoking Ban in Minnesota




Special Note: 日本語表示

 Russia unduly occupies our Northern Territories of Japan.
 Smoke-free hotels in Japan
  Domestic travel in Japan
 WHO: Smoking should be banned in all public spaces.
 World population: seven billion v.s. Declining birth rate in Japan
 Nobody in the earth can destroy the natural beauty of the land.
 Stop merging war criminals and war victims at Yasukuni Shrine.
 Tax saving's rental housing is mushrooming.

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