Manhattan, New York
Manhattan is located primarily on Manhattan Island at the mouth of the Hudson River. It is the most densely populated
county in the United States, with 27,485 residents per square kilometer. It is also one of the wealthiest counties in the
United States, with a 2005 personal income per capita above $100,000.
(Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, 23.April.2009)
(L)A Satellite photo of Manhattan, New York by Nasa (R) Time Warner Center consists of 299 m high twin towers.
(L) Amtrak's Acela Express for Washington, D.C. arrived at Pennsylvania Station of New York City.
(R) A police Booth in the center of the hall of the second floor of Pennsylvania Station
(L) No smoking sign on the wall of Pennsylvania Station
(R) A sign board of the Starbucks saying 'Starbucks is a Smoke-free Environment'.
Manhattan is a major commercial, financial, and cultural center of both the United States and the world. The most major
radio, television, and telecommunication companies in United States are based here, as well as much news, magazine,
book, and other media publishers. Manhattan has many famous landmarks, tourist attractions, museums, and universities.
Manhattan has the largest central business district in the United States, is the site of both the New York stock exchange
and Nasdaq, and is the home of the numerous number of corporate headquarters in the nation. It is the center of the
New York City andmetropolitan region, hosting the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment,
business, and entertainment activities.
(L) Tall buildings in Manhattan District (R) Reuters Headquarters in Times Square, Manhattan
(L) Metropolitan Museum, New York (R) A new yorker selling the pictures with a gorgeous color
(L) American Museum of Natural History is located next to the Central Park, New York.
(R) Tall buildings in Manhattan stand on the hard rocky stone layer.
(L) The ground under the bench on a sidewalk beside the Central Park is full of cigarette butts.
(M) A white woman is smoking while walking. The burning tip of cigarette may hit a child's eye.
(R) A street smoking by a Japanese couple
Entertainment center, Broadway, Manhattan, New York City
(L) The world economic center, New York Stock Exchange, Wall Street, Manhattan
(R) One of the world's most famous street, Wall Street, Manhattan, New York City
(L) No smoking sign plate at the American Stock Exchange
(R) A pole style-cigarette butt-receptor outside of the American Stock Exchange
'Charging bull' stands near Wall Street
World-famous ice Rink at Rockefeller Center, Manhattan, New York
New York City outdoor smoking ban begins.
Very quiet New York's Central Park with a rich in green
Smokers in New York City looking for lighting up in most public places will not be able to without paying a price after
an outdoor citywide smoking ban takes an effect. The law, which Mayor Michael Bloomberg signed in February 2011
after it was passed by the New York City Council, will make smoking illegal in New York City's 1,700 parks and on
the city's 14 miles of public beaches. Smoking will also be prohibited in pedestrian plazas like Times Square. The ban
is designed to help curb exposure to secondhand smoke as well as reduce litter.
Secondhand smoke causes close to 50,000 deaths per annum, and side effects may include lung cancer, respiratory
infections and asthma, according to the American Lung Association's website. Cigarette butts account for 75% of
the litter found on New York City beaches, according to a news release from Bloomberg's office. "Smoking in parks
and beaches not only harms people trying to enjoy these recreational facilities. It also causes a litter problem that
harms the beauty of our parks," Bloomberg said before he signed the bill into law. New York follows in the footsteps
of 105 municipalities in states,including California, Hawaii, Massachusetts and New Jersey that have banned smoking
on public beaches. Major cities, include Los Angeles, Minneapolis and Seattle. In states including California, Texas,
Illinois, Minnesota and New Jersey, 507 municipalities impose laws that prohibit city parks, or specifically named
city parks, to allow smoking. Major cities include Los Angeles, San Francisco and Salt Lake City. Puerto Rico prohibits
smoking in all parks and beaches.
"These smoke-free laws start at a local level," said Cynthia Hallett, executive director of Americans for Nonsmokers'
Rights. "They are based on community demand, science looking at exposure to secondhand smoke and the environ
-mental impact. Thirty-five states have laws, in effect, which require the 100% smoke-free non-hospitality workplaces,
restaurants or bars. The smokefree Laws compiled in April 2011. In all, 79.4% of the country's population is covered
by local and state laws banning smoking. Hallett added that the trend to ban smoking is working from the inside out,
starting in the indoor workplace, moving to restaurants with patios and then eventually to the great outdoors.
The ban will be enforced by the city's parks department, and if violators are caught, they could be fined $50.
New York passed its first Smoke-Free Air Act in 1988, when smoking was banned in public restrooms and taxicabs.
Since then, the law has been amended three times, most notably in 2002, when smoking in some indoor areas,
including restaurants and bars, was banned.
Source: May 23, 2011 Jordana Ossad, CNN
$B!!(BPhotography: North-eastern USA 2007
Total Smoking Ban in USA and Canada
$B!!(BSmoke-free BC Canada
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Public and Work places in Alberta
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Saskatchewan$B!!(B
$B!!(BNonsmokers Health Protection Act, Manitoba$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Ontario Act$B!!(B
$B!!(BTobaco Control in Quebec$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Places Act, New Brunswick$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Places Act, Nova Scotia$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in New Jersey$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoke-free Illinois Act$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in California$B!!(B1998
$B!!(BBeverly Hills banned in all outdoor dining areas$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in a condominium of California
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in the State of Washington
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Oregon$B!!!!(B
$B!!(BMontana passed statewide smoking Ban
$B!!(BColorado Clean Indoor Air Act
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Arizona$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in the State of Maine
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Vermont$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in the $B#M(Bassachusetts state.
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in New York$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Maryland$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Washington,D.C.
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Minnesota$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Delaware$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Ohio$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Iowa$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Utah$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Rhode Island$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Nevada$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Virginia
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Michigan$B!!(B
$B!!(BSmoking Ban in Wisconsin
USA and CANADA 2007
Arrival to Boston State of Maine to the Canadian Border Quebec City Autumn-tinted Quebec, Montreal Ottawa
Vermont and New Hampshire Boston$B!!(B Boston Railway Boston Subway$B!!(B Amtrak Acela Express$B!!(B Manhattan1
Manhattan2 New York Railway$B!!(B New York Subway and JFK Airport
USA and CANADA 2010
Washington, DC Ontario Michigan
Smokefree British Columbia Smokefree Alberta$B!!(B Trip to Canada 2011 Vancouver North Vancouver Whistler
Skytrain$B!!(B VIA train Jasper Icefield and Bow Summit Emerald Lake Lake Louise Banff Calgary
Edmonton Hospitals in BC and Alberta Tobacco control in B.C. and Alberta 2011
$B!V6X1l@J%M%C%H!W(B $B $BK\J8$*$h$S All photographs were taken in October 2007, unless otherwise described.
The article was written in October 2007, and revised in November 2009,
by Junhaku Miyamoto, M.D., PhD.
Information was added in June 2020.